The primary bilingual education experiment in Mozambique, 1993 to 1997. Reading in two languages at year five in African primary schools. 1 It is important to note that the focus of all of this work has been on language policy in schools. English is an important language; therefore, it may be taught as a language rather than as a medium at the primary level. unfavorably presuming that more languages will amount to learners’ High Socioeconomic status (SES) students have maximum access to English while low SES students have minimum access to it. policy inevitable, and believe that the earlier the English-medium policy, In T. Skutnabb-Kangas, R. Phillipson, A. K. Mohanty, & M. Panda (Eds.). In H. Coleman (Ed.). Research exploring the role of English in Pakistani education system usually focuses on the use of English as the medium of instruction. Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (2002). de facto medium of classroom transactions. What Does Fsc Stand For In Pakistan. methodology that utilized a questionnaire, interviews and observation, Therefore, we propose that the early-English policy may be reviewed, and replaced by mother tongue based multilingual policy. The purpose sampling strategy used to collect data from respondents about contemporary presentations they used in ESL / EFL classes.Studies assume that the extreme performance and more prominent learning beliefs associated with pre-school English teaching are confusing because they are not supported by bilingual/multilingual training assumptions and are not supported by the adolescent school and social conditions. In S. Mansoor, S. Meraj, & A. Tahir (Eds.). Drawing on data from the low-fee English-medium schools in part of Pakistan, results show that the English-medium policy is. Keywords: English language, official language policy, scale construction, school In this study we intended to understand whether the policy was implemented successfully in the province of Balochistan. Drawing from the symbolic power of language and the sociolinguistics of globalization as a theoretical lens, this study involves participants from four types of schools in Pakistan: elite private, elite public, general private, and general public to have participants from different social classes. contextualized use of English is a rare feature while Urdu stands as the Manan, S. A., David, M. K., & Dumanig, F. P. (2014). This was the … for early schooling. The politics of language policy in Pakistan. The current paper studies the latest language policy of Pakistan and its implications for local languages. Employing a mixed methodology, this study analyzes English-medium policy in 11 low-fee private schools in part of Pakistan. This study has recommendations for the policymakers, teachers, trainers, and students struggling to develop communicative competence and learner autonomy at higher education level in Pakistan. Pedagogical renewal: Improving the quality of classroom interaction in Nigerian primary schools. Thus the exclusionary nature of policy virtually fits in the critical concepts of linguistic imperialism (Phillipson, 1992, 2004) and linguistic genocide (Skutnabb-Kangas, 1996, 2000). The differential access to English leads to social stratification because of the crucial role English plays in social mobility. Skutnabb-Kangas, T., & McCarty, T. L. (2008). (2009). Importantly, behind the rapid spread and intense pursuit of English medium schooling is also a belief that the earlier the child is exposed to the English language, the faster she/he will learn the language. Let see. Neither of the other local languages are either taught in schools or allocated any instrumental support of any kind. It has 69 languages listed by the international agencies. Rahman, T. (1997). (2012, 10 January). The symbolic power of language helps to understand the importance of English from the participants’ perspectives and the role of education in perpetuating the existing class structure by limiting access to English. (2003). English is perceived as a passport to better employment and upward social mobility in Pakistan. Results suggest that most respondents perceive early-English Skutnabb-Kangas, T., & Toukomaa, P. (1976). Many equate the disproportional predominance and state-patronage of Urdu over other local languages as ‘Urdu imperialism’ as discussed by Rahman(2004). While the English language fulfils people’s Although English is inevitable for academic purposes in schools, several local factors such as institutional incapacity, unqualified teachers, and students’ weak cultural/linguistic base in English make this policy problematic. A reliability analysis was carried out to establish the authenticity and applicability of the tool. Therefore, we propose that the early-English policy may be reviewed, and replaced by mother tongue based multilingual policy. The medium of instruction dilemma: Implications for language planning in higher education. The research tools will mainly be the archival data and review of the research studies treated in qualitative manner. Because of its use in the domains of power, English can be seen as a source of self-improvement and as a means of career success (Mansoor, 2003; Rahman, 2002). The findings problematize the apprenticeship of observation concept and demonstrate that the teachers agentively draw upon their favorite English learning experiences. Available documents for and about English instruction in these schools were also reviewed. Khattak, S. G. (2014). Japan Forum, 20(2), 267-286. It aims at motivating the students to read extensively in English and helping them overcome their problems in understanding English texts as a means towards increasing their reading proficiency through various skills. Willaims, E. (1996). Deploying mixed In conclusion, there is an ongoing debate about the medium of instruction in Pakistan. We propose a review of the current policy and practices as they stand deviant from the theory of additive bi/multilingual theory, and modern communicative pedagogies. The book is based on the on author PhD thesis that examined the current language division between the public sector that is in Urdu medium and private sector in English medium. Nowadays, the English language is considered a language of education, business, and research, moreover, English is a medium of instruction in higher education institutions in Pakistan and communication ability and autonomy are regarded highly important skills for the students’ academic success and professional development in the university context. The language of instruction issue: Reality, aspiration and the wider context, 2. PBA builds on the current work on language policy and practice, but instead of providing a set of standards, it identifies a set of principles that can help policymakers in diverse contexts develop locally appropriate language policies and practices. The first language education policy of India was made for the promotion of English language that is on February 2nd in 1835, Thomas Babington Macaulay‟s minute on Indian Language policy was introduced. This is a follow-up to an earlier report, "Teaching and Learning in Pakistan: The Role of Language in Education" (Coleman 2010). Learning through a familiar language versus learning through a foreign language – A look into some secondary school classrooms in Tanzania. English was supposed to continue as the official language of Pakistan till such time that the national language (s) replaced it. Andrabi, T., Das, J., & Khwaja, A. I. Access to English in Pakistan is on a continuum for students in different schools. language, the role of English, and language policy and social stability. (1989). In M. E. Brown & Š. Ganguly (Eds.). Mesthrie, R. (2006). Urdu is the de facto language of interaction in schools. (2006). Literacy and bi/multilingual education in Africa: Recovering collective memory and expertise. Manan, S. A., David, M. K., & Dumanig, F. P. (2015). The study concluded that linguistic competence is unequally distributed in the region, which is reproduced from one generation to the next. Brock-Utne, B. The current language policy in general and the language, This study analyses the crisis of English teaching in Pakistan. By drawing upon the language planning framework proposed by Kaplan, Baldauf, and Kamwangamalu (2011) and applying convenient sampling technique, the researchers conducted thirty-one semi-structured interviews with urban and rural male and female teachers who teach in Grades 1 to 5. English is perceived as a passport to better employment and upward social mobility in Pakistan. An exploration of literature on second/foreign language (L2/FL) teaching suggests that the phenomenon in question has been investigated either by examining classroom processes or by exploring teachers’ lived experiences. Low cost private schools for the poor: What public policy is appropriate? Mother tongue language and concept development in science: A Botswana case study. In T. Skutnabb-Kangas, R. Phillipson, A. K. Mohanty, & M. Panda (Eds.). Heyneman, S. P., & Stern, J. M. B. English language learning; therefore, the scale can be stated as acceptable based on its psychometric properties. Results suggest that majority of children belong to uneducated or less-educated families whose exposure to English language is negligible through either reading material, social interaction, or via media. In Pakistan, English is one of the official languages and a prerequisite for professional jobs (Rahman, 2005). Pakistan has a large English language … Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Phillipson, R. (2009). Ayres, A. Public demand for English medium schooling has led to an exponential growth of low-fee/low-cost schools over the last two decades where " by the end of 2005, one in every three enrolled children at the primary level was studying in a private school " (Coleman, H. 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